Works Cited  

Althusser, Louis. “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes Towards an Investigation).” Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. Trans. Ben Brewster. London: NLB, 1971. 123–173.

———. “Marxism and Humanism.” For Marx. Trans. Ben Brewster. New York: Pantheon Books, 1969. 221–247.

Altman, Rick. “A Semantic/Syntactic Approach to Film Genre.” Film Genre Reader II. Ed. Barry Keith Grant. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995. 26–40.

Barthes, Roland. Mythologies. Ed. and trans. Annette Lavers. New York: Hill and Wang, 1983.

Baudrillard, Jean. The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. Unidentified translator (C.T.). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Ltd., 1998.

Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Trans. Richard Nice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1984.

Dyer, Richard. “White.” Screen 29.4 (Autumn 1988): 44–64.

Fiedler, Leslie. Love and Death in the American Novel. New York: Stein and Day, 1960.

Frankenberg, Ruth. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

Frye, Northrop. “Historical Criticism: Theory of Modes.” Anatomy of Criticism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957. 33–67.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. “‘Ethnic and Minority’ Studies.” Introduction to Scholarship in Modern Languages and Literatures. Ed. Joseph Gibaldi. New York: Modern Language Association, 1992. 288–302.

Gramsci, Antonio. “Hegemony, Relations of Force, Historical Bloc.” The Antonio Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings, 1916–1935. Ed. David Forgacs. New York: New York University Press, 2000. 190–221.

———. “Notes for an Introduction and an Approach to the Study of Philosophy and the History of Culture.” The Antonio Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings, 1916–1935. Ed. David Forgacs. New York: New York University Press, 2000. 324–362.

Hall, Stuart, et al. “Subcultures, Cultures, and Class.” Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-war Britain. Ed. Stuart Hall & Tony Jefferson. London: HarperCollins Academic, 1976.

Hall, Stuart. “The Politics of Representation.” Qtd. in dis/content 2.1 (Dec/Jan 1998–99): 8.

Harvey, David. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1990.

Hebdige, Dick. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. New York: Routledge, 1991.

hooks, bell. “Madonna: Plantation Mistress or Soul Sister?” Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992. 157–164.

———. “Eating the Other: Desire and Resistance.” Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992. 21–39.

Jameson, Fredric. “Reification and Utopia in Mass Culture.” Signatures of the Visible. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Kaminsky, Stuart. “Little Caesar and the Gangster Film.” American Film Genres: Approaches to a Critical Theory of Popular Film. Pflaum Publishing, 1974. 13–32.

Lévi-Strauss, Claude. “The Structural Study of Myth.” The Structuralists: From Marx to Lévi-Strauss. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1972. 169–194.

Lyotard, Jean-François. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Trans. Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi. Theory and History of Literature 10. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.

Pini, Maria. Club Cultures and Female Subjectivity: The Move from Home to House. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

Ray, Robert. A Certain Tendency of the Hollywood Cinema, 1930–1980. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Reeves, Jimmie L., Mark C. Rodgers, and Michael Epstein. “Rewriting Popularity: The Cult Files.” Signs of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. Ed. Sonia Maasik and Jack Solomon. 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000.

Roediger, David R. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class, revised ed. New York: Verso, 2000.

Salecl, Renata. “The Crisis of Identity and the Struggle for New Hegemony in the Former Yugoslavia.” The Making of Political Identities. Ed. Ernesto Laclau. New York: Verso, 1994. 205–232.

Schatz, Thomas. “The Structural Influence: New Directions in Film Genre Study.” Film Genre Reader II. Ed. Barry Keith Grant. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995. 91–101.

Sobchack, Thomas. “Genre Film: A Classical Experience.” Film Genre Reader II. Ed. Barry Keith Grant. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995. 102–113.

Thornton, Sarah. Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital. Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 1996.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. Ed. J.P. Mayer. Trans. George Lawrence. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1969.

Tudor, Andrew. “Genre.” Film Genre: Theory and Criticism. Ed. Barry K. Grant. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1977. 16–23.

Warshow, Robert. “The Gangster as Tragic Hero.” The Immediate Experience: Movies, Comics, Theatre & Other Aspects of Popular Culture. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1962. 127–133.

———. “Movie Chronicle: The Westerner.” The Immediate Experience: Movies, Comics, Theatre & Other Aspects of Popular Culture. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1962. 135–154.

Wright, Will. Six Guns and Society: A Structural Study of the Western. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.

Films Referenced

Backdraft. Dir. Ron Howard. Perf. William Baldwin, Robert DeNiro, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Kurt Russell, Donald Sutherland. MCA/Universal Pictures, 1991.

The Big Heat. Dir. Fritz Lang. Perf. Glenn Ford, Gloria Grahame, Lee Marvin. Columbia Pictures, 1953.

Blue Crush. Dir. John Stockwell. Perf. Kate Bosworth, Matthew Davis, Keala Kennelly, Sanoe Lake, Michelle Rodriguez. MCA/Universal Pictures, 2002.

Boiler Room. Dir. Ben Younger. Perf. Ben Affleck, Vin Diesel, Nia Long, Giovanni Ribisi, Ron Rifkin. New Line Cinema, 2000.

Bonnie and Clyde. Dir. Arthur Penn. Perf. Warren Beatty, Faye Dunaway, Gene Hackman, Michael J. Pollard, Estelle Parsons. Warner Brothers/Seven Arts, 1967.

Bring It On. Dir. Peyton Reed. Perf. Jesse Bradford, Kirsten Dunst, Eliza Dushku, Natina Reed, Lindsay Sloane, Gabrielle Union. MCA/Universal, 2000.

Bull Durham. Dir. Ron Shelton. Perf. Kevin Costner, Tim Robbins, Susan Sarandon. Orion Pictures, 1988.

Butch Cassidy and The Sundance Kid. Dir. George Roy Hill. Perf. Paul Newman, Robert Redford, Katherine Ross. 20th Century Fox, 1969.

City Hall. Dir. Harold Becker. Perf. John Cusack, Bridget Fonda, Al Pacino. Columbia Pictures, 1996.

The Color of Money. Dir. Martin Scorcese. Perf. Tom Cruise, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, Paul Newman, Helen Shaver, John Turturro. Buena Vista Pictures, 1986.

Days of Thunder. Dir. Tony Scott. Perf. Tom Cruise, Robert Duvall, Nicole Kidman, Randy Quaid, Michael Rooker. Paramount Pictures, 1990.

8 Mile. Dir. Curtis Hanson. Perf. Kim Basinger, Eminem, Evan Jones, Anthony Mackie, Brittany Murphy, Mekhi Phifer. Imagine Entertanment/Universal, 2002.

8 Seconds. Dir. John G. Avildsen. Perf. Stephen Baldwin, Cynthia Geary, Red Mitchell, Luke Perry, James Rebhorn. New Line Cinema, 1994.

The Fast and the Furious. Dir. Rob Cohen. Perf. Jordana Brewster, Vin Diesel, Ted Levine, Michelle Rodriguez, Paul Walker. MCA/Universal Pictures, 2001.

The Godfather. Dir. Francis Ford Coppola. Perf. Marlon Brando, James Caan, Robert Duvall, Diane Keaton, Al Lettieri, John Marley, Al Pacino. Paramount Pictures, 1972.

Goodfellas. Dir. Martin Scorcese. Perf. Lorraine Bracco, Robert DeNiro, Samuel L. Jackson, Ray Liotta, Joe Pesci, Paul Sorvino. Warner Brothers, 1990.

Groove. Dir. Greg Harrison. Perf. Bing Ching, Mackenzie Firgens, Lola Glaudini, Denny Kirkwood, Hamish Linklater. 415 Productions/Sony Pictures, 2000.

High Sierra. Dir. Raoul Walsh. Perf. Humphrey Bogart, Alan Curtis, Arthur Kennedy, Joan Leslie, Ida Lupino, Donald MacBride. Warner Brothers, 1941.

Hoosiers. Dir. David Anspaugh. Perf. Gene Hackman, Barbara Hershey, Dennis Hopper. Orion Pictures, 1986.

Key Largo. Dir. John Huston. Perf. Lauren Bacall, Lionel Barrymore, Humphrey Bogart, Edward G. Robinson. Warner Brothers, 1948.

Kiss of Death. Dir. Henry Hathaway. Perf. Brian Donlevy, Coleen Gray, Victor Mature, Richard Widmark. 20th Century Fox, 1947.

Little Caesar. Dir. Mervyn LeRoy. Perf. Sidney Blackmer, Douglas Fairbanks Jr., Glenda Farrell, Stanley Fields, Ralph Ince, Edward G. Robinson. MGM/United Artists, 1931.

On the Waterfront. Dir. Elia Kazan. Perf. Marlon Brando, Lee J. Cobb, Karl Malden, Rod Steiger. Columbia Pictures, 1954.

Point Break. Dir. Kathryn Bigelow. Perf. Gary Busey, Lori Petty, Keanu Reeves, Patrick Swayze. 20th Century Fox Film Corporation, 1991.

The Professionals. Dir. Richard Brooks. Perf. Claudia Cardinale, Burt Lancaster, Lee Marvin, Robert Ryan. Columbia Pictures. 1966.

Punchline. Dir. David Seltzer. Perf. Sally Field, John Goodman, Tom Hanks. Columbia Pictures, 1988.

Pushing Tin. Dir. Mike Newell. Perf. Cate Blanchett, John Cusack, Angelina Jolie, Billy Bob Thornton. 20th Century Fox, 1999.

Rounders. Dir. John Dahl. Perf. Matt Damon, Martin Landau, John Malkovich, Gretchen Mol, Edward Norton, John Turturro. Miramax Films, 1998.

Searching for Bobby Fischer. Screenplay/Dir. Steven Zaillian. Joan Allen, Laurence Fishburne, Ben Kingsley, Joe Mantegna, Max Pomeranc. Paramount Pictures, 1993.

Top Gun. Dir. Tony Scott. Perf. Tom Cruise, Val Kilmer, Kelly McGillis. Paramount Pictures, 1986.

Wall Street. Dir. Oliver Stone. Perf. Michael Douglas, Daryl Hannah, Charlie Sheen, Martin Sheen. CBS/20th Century Fox Films, 1987.

The Wild Bunch. Dir. Sam Peckinpah. Perf. Ernest Borgnine, William Holden, Robert Ryan, Jaime Sánchez. 1969. DVD. Warner Home Video, 1995.
  Genre Analysis
  Race, Gender,
    and Class
  The Postmodern
  Works Cited and
    Films Referenced